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How to choose a radio / transmitter | Introduction to Tiny Whoop / FPV drone for beginner

Jumper T12 Pro OpenTX radio controller
Here is a summary of the basic information for choosing a radio / transmitter for Tiny Whoop / FPV drone for beginners.
If you want to start fly Tiny Whoop / FPV drone, get a radio (digital proportional transmitter) first. As long as you have a Controller, you can start practicing maneuvering using drone simulator on your computer.

Choose Controller / Radio

The information required to select a Controller is the protocol used to communicate with the drone and whether or not a "TELEC certification" has been obtained, which indicates that it complies with the Radio Law in Japan.
The products of Jumper, FrSky, and Spektrum are famous as radios for micro drones. Among them, FrSky's products are the mainstream in the world.

Communication protocol

There are various protocols for control signals sent from Controller to Drone. You don't have to understand the protocol specifications, but you need to make sure that the protocol matches between Drone and Controller you want to fly.
Most Tiny Whoops use one of the "Frsky", "DSMX" or "Flysky" protocols. It is certain to get a Controller that supports these three. Nowadays, you can get a Controller that supports multiple protocols for about USD100. Alternatively, some Controller can have an optional multi-protocol module added.
Among them, "Frsky" is the most popular protocol. When in doubt, it's a good idea to choose a drone and Radio that supports "Frsky."
Also, if you use a transceiver (protocol) called Crossfire or ExpressLRS, radio waves can reach longer distances than usual (about 500 m).
In addition, "Frsky" is further classified as a subtype, and subtype "D8" is banned in Europe since 2015, and mandatory to use protocol called LBT (Listen Before Talk) in subtype "D16". For this reason, there are two models of drones / radios that support "Frsky", "Frsky Non-FCC / Frsky LBT" for Europe and "Frsky FCC / Frsky Non-EU" for other regions.

Confirmation of acquisition of 'TELEC certification' (in Japan)

TELEC certification mark
Radio transmits control signals over 2.4GHz band (2403MHz-2447MHz) radio waves. In order to use a device that emits radio waves in Japan, the device must have TELEC certification (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) . The certification is usually obtained by the manufacturer or importer applying to the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, and "TELEC mark" is attached to the product as shown in the figure.
Users must choose Controller with this "TELEC mark". Alternatively, although it takes time and money, you can apply for TELEC certification yourself.

Control stick / Gimbal

Control sticks and unit of the sensor part that detects sticks movement are collectively called gimbal. Normally, radio has two gimbals on the left and right.
There are two main types of gimbals, depending on the type of sensor. One is called Hall Sensor, which uses magnetism to detect position of the sticks. The other is a method that uses electrical contacts, also called Potentiometer. Hall sensors generally wear less, so they run more smoothly, last longer, but more expensive.

Firmware setup

Radio used for Tiny Whoop runs on open source firmware. Some settings need to be made before flight is possible. Depending on the product, it may be necessary to start by installing firmware. Various settings and adjustments can be made by connecting PC and Radio with USB cable, and using firmware companion software (Configurator).
In recent models, it seems that OpenTX is often adopted as the firmware. Information providing sites OpenTX University and RCdiy has more information on how to configure Radios with OpenTX. Also please refer How to use OpenTX Radio page.

Bind

Controller and Drone must first perform an operation called "bind" that connects them to each other. You can bind multiple receivers (drones) to one Radio and switch between them for maneuvering, but one receiver can only bind to one Radio. When you bind to a new transmitter, it will be unbound from the transmitter you were using.
To bind, first start the drone in bind mode, then perform the bind operation on the Controller side. This procedure varies for Controller and Drones. Please read each manual carefully before operating.

Arm / Disarm

Enabling operation of drone is called Arm. After binding and turning on radio and drone, turn on Arm switch on radio to enable operations such as sticks. If you feel a danger, you can drop drone on the spot by intentionally turning off Arm switch.
Normally, Arm cannot be performed unless throttle is set to zero and aircraft is level.

Various radios / transmitters for Tiny Whoop / FPV drones

  • Jumper T8SG V3 Multi-Protocol 2.4G 10CH Transmitter Radio

    Jumper USD115.00

    On-board firmware:Deviation
    Features a compact size and a host of protocol options all built in to one product. Four individual RF Chip modules are all integrated with the main internal RF Module. Various protocols can be quickly and easily selected from the model menu allowing you to bind the radio to just about any major protocol in today’s market.

    Buy at Amazon.com(US) Buy at Amazon.co.uk(UK)

  • Jumper T12 Pro Radio Transmitter Hall Gimbal 2.4G 16CH Open Source Multi-Protocol RC Transmitter

    Jumper USD129.99

    On-board firmware:OpenTX
    Comes with a R1F receiver, no need for you to find another compatible receiver, more convenient for fpv drone zealots like you. JP4-in-1 Multi-protocal module includes. DSM2/X, FrSKY, SFHSS, FlySky, FlySky AFHDS2A, Hubsan and more.

    Buy at Amazon.com(US) Buy at Amazon.co.uk(UK)

  • Jumper T-LITE Open Source Multi-Protocol RC Transmitter

    Jumper USD83.00

    On-board firmware:OpenTX
    Internal Multi-protocal module. Full Size Adjustable Hall Sensor Gimbals. Internal USB-C Charging. Removable Antenna. Battery life up to 6 hours.

    Buy at Amazon.com(US) Buy at Amazon.co.uk(UK)

  • RadioMaster T8 Pro

    RadioMaster USD89.99

    On-board firmware:OpenTX
    T8 Pro is compatible with all CC2500 protocols supported by the Multi-Module project such as Frsky D8, D16, Futaba S-FHSS, RadioLink, Graupner HoTT and more! Just select the right protocol via the menu system with the included clip on OpenTX screen control unit and fully customize your model configuration with the full capability of OpenTX at your fingertips.

    Buy at Amazon.com(US) Buy at Amazon.co.uk(UK)

  • RadioMaster TX12

    RadioMaster USD105.00

    On-board firmware:OpenTX
    Supported protocols: Corona, Hitec, Futaba S-FHSS, Frsky D16 / D8, RadioLink, Graupner HoTT. External modules are also available: Compatible with JR / FrSKY / Crossfire. Frequency: 2.400GHZ-2.480GHZ

    Buy at Amazon.com(US) Buy at Amazon.co.uk(UK)

  • RadioMaster TX16S

    RadioMaster USD199.99

    On-board firmware:OpenTX
    Multi-Protocol OpenTX Remote Controller(Mode 2), Includes: Transmitter, USB Type C Cable, Foam Case(Battery NOT included)

    Buy at Amazon.com(US) Buy at Amazon.co.uk(UK)

  • FrSky Taranis X9 Lite Transmitter Access Protocol for RC Drone

    FrSky USD99.97

    On-board firmware:OpenTX
    FrSky Taranis X9 Lite is a remarkable fusion of traditional radio design with the innovations of ACCESS protocol. The X9 Lite inherits its classic form factor from the FrSky Taranis X9D series remote control, along with completely preserving the comfort of the classic grip design, it also adds a program scroll button adding convenience when navigating the menu further improving the user experience.

    Buy at Amazon.com(US) Buy at Amazon.co.uk(UK)

  • FrSky Taranis Q X7 16 Channels Transmitter Remote Controller

    FrSky USD124.98

    On-board firmware:OpenTX
    This is a lightweight feature packed reliable system and it comes in black or white color scheme. The radio includes a Haptic Vibration Feedback System which provides an alternative feedback system to the voice and sound alert warnings.

    Buy at Amazon.com(US) Buy at Amazon.co.uk(UK)

  • Spektrum DXe DSMX

    Spektrum USD99.99

    high-end features the 7-channel Spektrum DXS radio can combine with a DMSX receiver of your choice to create the ideal system.

    Buy at Amazon.com(US) Buy at Amazon.co.uk(UK)

  • FrSky Transmitter Taranis X-Lite S 24CH Radio

    FrSky USD179.99

    On-board firmware:OpenTX
    Ergonomic and compact design M12 Lite hall sensor gimbals Compatibility: ACCESS and ACCST D16 mode receivers. With installed ACCESS protocol Lower latency (down to 12ms) High-speed digital interface of internal and external modules.

    Buy at Amazon.com(US) Buy at Amazon.co.uk(UK)

  • BETAFPV Lite Radio 2 Transmitter

    BETAFPV USD45.99

    On-board firmware:OpenTX
    Designed for FPV racing starters, and supports Bayang protocol and Frsky protocol (D16/ D8). LiteRadio 2 is powered by OpenTX firmware. Totally 8 channels and has a hobby-grade gimbal.

    Buy at Amazon.com(US) Buy at Amazon.co.uk(UK)